KECK INSTITUTE FOR SPACE STUDIES

       

Tidal Heating – Lessons from Io and the Jovian System

Workshop Image Gallery

The KISS images below are public domain, but must be accompanied by the appropriate image credit.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Callisto, consisting of an ice shell, liquid water ocean, and rocky/metallic deep interior. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Saturn's moon, Enceladus, consisting of an ice shell, liquid water ocean, and rocky deep interior. The plumes at the southern hemisphere continuously erupt water from the ocean below. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Europa, consisting of an ice shell, liquid water ocean, and rocky/metallic deep interior.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. From top to bottom, the layers are: solid ice shell, liquid water ocean, solid high-pressure ice, rocky mantle, and metallic core. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Io. From top to bottom, the layers are: rocky lithosphere, fluid magma ocean, rocky mantle, and metallic core. This interior structure represents on end member of possible interior structures. The plumes above the limb result Io's continuously active volcanism. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Io, consisting of a rocky shell, overlying a fluid magma ocean, and rocky/metallic deep interior. This interior structure represents on end member of possible interior structures. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Neptune's moon, Triton, consisting of an ice shell, liquid water ocean, and rocky/metallic deep interior.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Saturn's moon, Titan. From top to bottom, the layers are: a thick atmosphere, solid ice shell, liquid water ocean, solid high-pressure ice, rocky mantle, and metallic core. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Unannotated schematic illustration of the sources, sinks, and transport processes controlling the chemical and isotopic species in/on/around Io.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Unannotated schematic illustration for four end-member interior structure models of Jupiter's moon, Io. Models on the left assume a predominantly solid interior with tidal heating dissipated primarily in the deep mantle (top-left) or asthenosphere (bottom-left). Models on the right assume a substantial amount of melt, either in the form of a continuous magma ocean (top-right), or an interconnected sponge of partial melt (bottom-right). Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the interior of Jupiter's moon, Io, consisting of a rocky shell, overlying a partially molten mantle, and rocky/metallic deep interior. This interior structure represents on end member of possible interior structures. Layer thicknesses are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the sources, sinks, and transport processes controlling the chemical and isotopic species in/on/around Io.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

The Jupiter system provides exciting destinations for groundbreaking new science, enabled by a variety of different spacecraft architectures, instruments, observations, and experiments.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the structure of Io’s interior, with arbitrary layer thicknesses, considering deep- (top) and shallow-mantle (bottom) end-member tidal dissipation scenarios within a solid interior (left panels) versus how dissipation processes would be affected by either a magma ocean, or globally extensive high-partial melt layer (i.e., a magmatic sponge; right panels).

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the principles behind electromagnetic sounding of Io’s interior. Io experiences a time-varying external magnetic field (A), which produces eddy currents in Io’s conductive layers (B), which drives an induced magnetic field (C). The observed magnetic field around Io is a combination of these processes (D). The magnitude of the induced magnetic field is a function of the physical and electromagnetic properties of Io’s interior (E–G).

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the possible physical configurations of melt within Io and other partially molten silicate worlds. The scale of each block is of-order one centimeter.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic illustration of the solar system’s ocean worlds. All worlds are shown to scale with one another, although the size of the interior layers are only approximate.

Image credit: Chuck Carter and James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Cover artwork from the Tidal Heating – Lessons from Io and the Jovian System report. Io and the Jupiter system is a vibrant destination for exploration, and holds the keys to fundamental understanding of tidal heating across the cosmos. Artwork is color pencil on paper.

Image credit: James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

Schematic of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. The top panels show the orbital architecture of the system, with the host planet and orbits to scale. Relevant mean-motion resonances are identified in red. The bottom panels show the satellites to scale with one another. We focus on the major satellites. Listed physical parameters include the diameter (d), bulk density (ρ), and rotational period (P)—which for all of the satellites is equal to their orbital period, as they are all tidally locked with their host planet.

Image credit: James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.

A schematic diagram of tidal deformation for a tidally-locked satellite orbiting a planet. Tides deform the satellite at all distances, although deformation is strongest when the satellite is closest to the planet (pericenter) and weakest when the satellite is furthest from the planet (apocenter). B–E, Schematic diagrams of how tides affect the orbit of a tidally-locked satellite (based on Burns and Matthews, 1986).

Image credit: James Tuttle Keane / Keck Institute for Space Studies.


Study Final Report:

de Kleer, et al. Tidal Heating: Lessons from Io and the Jovian System, Final Report for the Keck Institute for Space Studies, 2019. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190628-123013908